[4] Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017.[5]. Ammonium nitrate is a crystal-like white solid which is made in large industrial quantities. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound used in agriculture as a fertilizer, to make pyrotechnics, as an ingredient in cold packs, and for science demonstrations. It has some military applications as well. It is highly soluble in water and hygroscopic as a solid, although it does not form hydrates. But not all ammonium nitrate experiments end with a bang. Calcium ammonium nitrate is an inorganic compound that is widely used as a fertilizer. It has a role as a fertilizer, an explosive and an oxidizing agent. Ammonium nitrate-based explosives were used in the Sterling Hall bombing in Madison, Wisconsin, 1970, the Oklahoma City bombing in 1995, the 2011 Delhi bombings, the 2011 bombing in Oslo, and the 2013 Hyderabad blasts. Ammonium lactate is used to treat dry, scaly, itchy skin. 2. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the chemical formula NH4NO3. Ammonium nitrate can absorb enough moisture to liquefy. Examples include the Oppau explosion of 1921 (one of the largest artificial non-nuclear explosions), the Texas City disaster of 1947, the 2015 Tianjin explosions in China, and the 2020 Beirut explosion.[37]. Detonation may occur at 80 atmospheres. The chemical is applied in granule form into the soil and quickly dissolves under moisture, allowing nitrogen to be released. An explosive charge within or in contact with a mass of ammonium nitrate causes the ammonium nitrate to detonate. It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. A number of trials were carried out in the 1960s but the substance was not adopted by NASA. It is highly soluble in water and hygroscopic as a solid, although it does not form hydrates. The commercial grade contains about 33.5 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants; it is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers. Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound with the formula NH₄NO₃. It should not be heated in a confined space. It is predominantly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate can explode through two mechanisms: InChI=1S/NO3.H3N/c2-1(3)4;/h;1H3/q-1;/p+1, Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their, Production, reactions and crystalline phases, Ammonium Nitrate-Regulating its use, Balancing Access & Protection from, largest artificial non-nuclear explosions, "Ammonium nitrate production by country, 2019 - knoema.com". Providing the correct amount of nutrients to your plants is crucial to their health and development. "[17], Ammonium nitrate is used in some instant cold packs, as its dissolution in water is highly endothermic. The ammonia required for this process is obtained by the Haber process from nitrogen and hydrogen. The red–orange colour in an explosion cloud is due to nitrogen dioxide, a secondary reaction product.[12]. Ammonium nitrate was mined there in the past,[when?] Produced as small porous pellets, or “prills”, it’s one of the world’s most widely used fertilisers. The following occur under atmospheric pressure. Most countries have regulations controlling the storage of ammonium nitrate to make it safe. Examples of such disasters are. Another use of ammonium nitrate is in the food industry where it is used as a nutrient in producing antibiotics and yeast. [26], Ammonium nitrate has a critical relative humidity of 59.4%, above which it will absorb moisture from the atmosphere. It is an inexpensive synthetic source of nitrogen, one of the 14 essential … The chemical made the news again after a huge explosion in Beirut caused the death of 100 people and nearly 4,000 injuries. Other names we use for this compound are nitro-limestone and nitrochalk. The manufacture, conversion, bagging, import, export, transport, possession for sale or use of ammonium nitrate is covered under The Ammonium Nitrate Rules, 2012. Ammonium nitrate is an odourless material, which is usually granulated (if a fertiliser) and white in appearance. Ammonium nitrate and urea both contain the element nitrogen, but in different forms. It is a white crystalline solid and is highly soluble in water. It's also used to create controlled … What is calcium nitrate? Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound widely used in farming as fertilizer. When mixed with fuel oils, the chemical creates a potent explosive that is widely used in the construction industry. Ammonium lactate is a moisturizer. [21][24][25] It should not be stored near combustible substances. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. Properties: UNIDO and International Fertilizer Development Center (1998), This page was last edited on 28 November 2020, at 03:22. Since ammonium nitrate has nitrate in it already, plants get nitrogen from it a bit faster than if you apply urea. Contamination can reduce this to 20 atmospheres. For this reason, phase stabilized ammonium nitrate (PSAN) which incorporates metal halides as stabilisers has been investigated.[14]. [27][28], Ammonium nitrate begins decomposition after melting, releasing NO x , HNO3, NH3 and H2O. Chemical Advisory: Safe Storage, Handling, and Management of Ammonium Nitrate, United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Report for Kooragang Island Update PHA MOD1 Report", "Guidance for Compatibility of Fertilizer Blending Materials", "Material Safety Data Sheet, Ammonium nitrate MSDS", "Lebanon's president calls for two-week state of emergency in Beirut after blast", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ammonium_nitrate&oldid=991074538, Short description is different from Wikidata, Pages using collapsible list with both background and text-align in titlestyle, Articles containing unverified chemical infoboxes, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Shock-to-detonation transition. [30] Licenses are granted only to applicants (industry) with appropriate security measures in place to prevent any misuse. Ammonium nitrate is the “N” in N-P-K synthetic lawn fertilizer. Ammonium nitrate has an LD50 of 2217 mg/kg,[35] which for comparison is about two-thirds that of table salt. However, it can be induced to decompose explosively by detonation. Global production was estimated at 21.6 million tonnes in 2017. Ammonium nitrate has also been used as an oxidizer in some solid fuel rockets and to help deploy airbags in cars. Ammonium nitrate fertilizer is a simple compound to make. Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used around the world as an agricultural fertilizer, and in explosives for mining. Ammonium nitrate was also used to create the explosives used in the 2006 Mumbai train bombings. Ammonium nitrate, which is used in fertilizers and bomb making, is a salt made from ammonium and nitric acid, and it is highly explosive. It has been reported that the cause of the explosion in the Lebanon capital was ammonium nitrate. Determine the amount of fertilizer necessary using the soil test results as a guide. Other uses include as a heat absorber in instant cold packs. Ammonium nitrate's advantage over urea is that it is more stable and does not rapidly lose nitrogen to the atmosphere. The potential for use of the material as an explosive has prompted regulatory measures. Otherwise, it can coalesce into a large, solid mass. [36] Ammonium nitrate is a chemical compound containing the element nitrogen (as well as hydrogen and oxygen) and is commonly used in agriculture as fertilizer. It should not be stored near high explosives or blasting agents. The chemical is classified as an “energetic material” meaning that it produces heat as it decomposes. Health and safety data are shown on the safety data sheets available from suppliers and from various governments.[21][22][23]. [31] Additional uses such as education and research purposes may also be considered, but individual use will not. Ammonium nitrate decomposes, non-explosively, into the gases nitrous oxide and water vapor when heated. Using ammonium nitrate in gardens and large scale agricultural fields enhances plant growth and provides a ready supply of nitrogen from which plants can draw. Molten ammonium nitrate is very sensitive to shock and detonation, particularly if it becomes contaminated with incompatible materials such as combustibles, flammable liquids, acids, chlorates, chlorides, sulfur, metals, charcoal and sawdust. but virtually 100% of the chemical now used is synthetic. “Ammonium nitrate is the ammonium salt of nitric acid. The AN melt is then made into "prills" or small beads in a spray tower, or into granules by spraying and tumbling in a rotating drum. Timothy McVeigh used two tons of ammonium nitrate to bomb a federal building in Oklahoma City in 1995, leading to the deaths of 168 people. Blending ammonium nitrate with certain other fertilizers can lower the critical relative humidity.[29]. It has a role as … While ammonium nitrate is stable at ambient temperature and pressure under many conditions, it may detonate from a strong initiation charge. Ammonium nitrate liquid is the white crystals dissolved in water. Ammonium nitrate is an ingredient in certain explosives. These prills or granules are the typical AN products in commerce. Many ammonium nitrate disasters, with loss of lives, have occurred. It works both as a fertiliz… Ammonium lactate may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide. Explosions are not uncommon: relatively minor incidents occur most years, and several large and devastating explosions have also occurred. It is used to make fertilizers and explosives. Ammonium nitrate is an important fertilizer with NPK rating 34-0-0 (34% nitrogen). Many countries are phasing out its use in consumer applications due to concerns over its potential for misuse. A solution of ammonium nitrate with nitric acid called Cavea-b showed promise for use in spacecraft as a more energetic alternative to the common monopropellant hydrazine. Ammonium nitrate is the fertilizer compound that can be used in explosives, said John Goodpaster, who researches explosives at Indiana at University-Purdue University Indianapolis. Ammonium nitrate can also be made via metathesis reactions: As ammonium nitrate is a salt, both the cation, NH4+, and the anion, NO3−, may take part in chemical reactions. It has been the cause of numerous industrial explosions over the last three decades, including the explosion at a chemical plant in Toulouse, France, in 2001 that killed 31 people. * Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used in fertilisers and as an explosive for quarrying and mining. Health and safety data are shown on the material safety data sheets, which are available from suppliers and can be found on the internet. It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is used in the high explosive ANFO (ammonium nitrate/fuel oil). For example, in Australia, the Dangerous Goods Regulations came into effect in August 2005 to enforce licensing in dealing with such substances. Ammonia produced by the Haber process can be oxidized to nitric acid by the Ostwald process. Ammonium nitrate has the chemical formula NH₄NO₃. When plants dont have enough of a certain nutrient, pests, disease and low bearing are often the result. It is a white crystalline solid consisting of ions of ammonium and nitrate. Ammonium nitrate, (NH 4 NO 3), a salt of ammonia and nitric acid, used widely in fertilizers and explosives. Large stockpiles of the material can also be a major fire risk due to their supporting oxidation, a situation which can easily escalate to detonation. Ammonium nitrate is predominantly used in agriculture as a fertiliser. Ammonium nitrate is a hazardous chemical that has many grades and is used in fertiliser and explosives products because of its unique properties. Under certain conditions, this can lead to a runaway reaction, with the decomposition process becoming explosive. It accounts for about 4% of the total nitrogen-fertilizer utilization worldwide. It is created when … Ammonium nitrate sold by ton as U.S. regulation is stymied. We can denote this fertilizer compound as CAN. Ammonium nitrate, (NH 4 NO 3), a salt of ammonia and nitric acid, used widely in fertilizers and explosives. You may associate ammonium nitrate with explosives; it's commonly used in safety explosives and pyrotechnics as well as fertilizer. [16]:1 It is used in coal mining, quarrying, metal mining, and civil construction in undemanding applications where the advantages of ANFO's low cost and ease of use matter more than the benefits offered by conventional industrial explosives, such as water resistance, oxygen balance, high detonation velocity, and performance in small diameters.[16]:2. A number of crystalline phases of ammonium nitrate have been observed. [21] The resulting heat and pressure from decomposition increases the sensitivity to detonation and increases the speed of decomposition. Great Conjunction as it happened: Watch how Jupiter & Saturn 'nearly touched', Meghan and Harry to 'release Christmas card' as the couple is spotted in LA, Woman sent pic of ‘dreadful little willy’ pretends to be a doctor to shame him, Daily Chinese Horoscope Tuesday December 22: What your zodiac sign has in store, Student’s fake tan fail goes viral as people laugh at her bronzed look, © 2020 THE SUN, US, INC. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED | TERMS OF USE | PRIVACY | YOUR AD CHOICES | SITEMAP, Comments are subject to our community guidelines, which can be viewed, The chemical is widely used as a fertiliser but has been used to make explosives because of its low cost, Wreckage from the 2001 chemical plant explosion in Toulouse, The blast in the port area of Beirut on August 4, Beirut explosion - Frantic search for hundreds of survivors trapped under rubble after blast so big it tore off clothes. This type of fertilizer is typically sold in a granular form, although other preparations and combinations are possible. Toxic oxides of nitrogen are produced in fires involving this material. [26][21], Contact with certain substances such as chlorates, mineral acids and metal sulfides, can lead to vigorous or even violent decomposition capable of igniting nearby combustible material or detonating. It was reported that 2,750 tonnes of ammonium nitrate was stored in a warehouse for six years without safety measures. [12] See § disasters for details. Even so, plants can not use some of the nitrogen in either product until it has been converted to the Anitrate form. -Ammonium nitrate is an industrial chemical commonly used in fertilisers and as an explosive for quarrying and mining. [15] It is less concentrated than urea (46-0-0), giving ammonium nitrate a slight transportation disadvantage. Ammonium nitrate is an odorless, nearly colorless crystal salt. [6] Accidental ammonium nitrate explosions have killed thousands of people since the early 20th century. [32], Ammonium nitrate is not hazardous to health and is usually used in fertilizer products.[32][33][34]. Solid ammonium nitrate decomposes on heating. News Corp is a network of leading companies in the worlds of diversified media, news, education, and information services. Find out more about its hazards and safe management. The reaction is violent owing to its highly exothermic nature. But what is it and what is it used for? A Cheaper Airbag, and Takata's Road to a Deadly Crisis. Both decomposition reactions are exothermic and their products are gas. In November 2009, the government of the North West Frontier Province (NWFP) of Pakistan imposed a ban on ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, and calcium ammonium nitrate fertilizers in the former Malakand Division – comprising the Upper Dir, Lower Dir, Swat, Chitral, and Malakand districts of the NWFP – following reports that those chemicals were used by militants to make explosives. The commercial grade contains about 33.5 percent nitrogen, all of which is in forms utilizable by plants; it is the most common nitrogenous component of artificial fertilizers. Numerous safety guidelines are available for storing and handling ammonium nitrate. The industrial production of ammonium nitrate entails the acid-base reaction of ammonia with nitric acid:[10]. Ammonium nitrate is a popular fertilizer since it provides half of the N in the nitrate form and half in the ammonium form. The prills or granules may be further dried, cooled, and then coated to prevent caking. The chemical is applied in granule form into the soil and quickly dissolves under moisture, allowing nitrogen to be released. Both the β-rhombic to α-rhombic forms are potentially present at ambient temperature in many parts of the world but have a 3.6% difference in density. What is ammonium nitrate? Calcium nitrate fertilizer is the only water soluble source of calcium available for plants. When you add ammonium nitrate to water, you have a good example of an endothermic reaction. After the solution is formed, typically at about 83% concentration, the excess water is evaporated off to leave an ammonium nitrate (AN) content of 95% to 99.9% concentration (AN melt), depending on grade. If there is a significant amount of ammonium nitrate it can generate enough heat to catch fire and continue to burn eventually causing an explosion. Pure ammonium nitrate does not burn, but as a strong oxidizer, it supports and accelerates the combustion of organic (and some inorganic) material. It is the major constituent of ANFO, a popular industrial explosive which accounts for 80% of explosives used in North America; similar formulations have been used in improvised explosive devices. 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